Cedar Valley Realtor

Oklahoma and Indian Territories

Indian Territory (lands where the Five Civilized Tribes and other Indian tribes east of the Mississippi River were relocated) and Oklahoma Territory (primairly lands set aside to relocate Plains Indians and tribes from the mid-west, as well as lands that were unassigned to any other state or territory) were formally constituted by Congress on May 2, 1890 in the Oklahoma Organic Act. An Organic Act is the name of statute used by the United States Congress to create Organized incorporated territories of the United States, in anticipation of being admitted to the Union as state. The following 16 years saw Congress passing several laws whose purpose was to join Oklahoma and Indian territories into a single State of Oklahoma. [edit]Land runs Main articles: Land run and Land Run of 1889 Oklahoma and Indian Territory, 1890s The United States entered into two new treaties with the Creeks and the Seminoles. Under these treaties, tribes would sell at least part of their land in Oklahoma to the U.S. to settle other Indian tribes and freemen.[17][18] This land would be widely called the Unassigned Lands or Oklahoma Country in the 1880s due to it remaining uninhabited for over a decade.[19] In 1879, part-Cherokee Elias C. Boudinot argued that these Unassigned Lands be open for settlement because the title to these lands belonged to the United States and "whatever may have been the desire or intention of the United States Government in 1866 to locate Indians and negroes upon these lands, it is certain that no such desire or intention exists in 1879. The Negro since that date, has become a citizen of the United States, and Congress has recently enacted laws which practically forbid the removal of any more Indians into the Territory".[20] Photo of one of Oklahoma's land runs On Mar h 23, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison signed legislation which opened up the two million acres (8,000 km?) of the Unassigned Lands for settlement on April 22, 1889. It was to be the first of many land runs, but later land openings were conducted by means of a lottery because of widespread cheatingsome of the settlers were called Sooners because they had already staked their land claims before the land was officially opened for settlement. The Oklahoma Organic Act of 1890 created the Oklahoma Territory out of the Unassigned Lands and the area known as No Man's Land. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Oklahoma in the 1890s In 1893, the government purchased the rights to settle the Cherokee Outlet, or Cherokee Strip, from the Cherokee Nation. The Cherokee Outlet was part of the lands ceded to the government in the 1866 treaty, but the Cherokees retained access to the area and had leased it to several Chicago meat-packing plants for huge cattle ranches. The Cherokee Strip was opened to settlement by land run in 1894. Also, in 1893, Congress set up the Dawes Commission to negotiate agreements with each of the Five Civilized Tribes for the allotment of tribal lands to individual Indians. Finally, the Curtis Act of 1898 abolished tribal jurisdiction over all of Indian Territory. Angie Debo's landmark work, And Still the Waters Run: The Betrayal of the Five Civilized Tribes (1940), detailed how the allotment policy of the Dawes Commission and the Curtis Act of 1898 was systematically manipulated to deprive the Native Americans of their lands and resources.[21] In the words of historian Ellen Fitzpatrick, Debo's book "advanced a crushing analysis of the corruption, moral depravity, and criminal activity that underlay white administration and execution of the allotment policy."